Abstract: The objective of this study is to design a control system for the provision of water and hot water around the clock for people living in difficult times and abnormal conditions in their residential areas using solar energy as sustainable and free energy and water of wells. This study was accomplished during the severe electricity crisis that occurred in the city of Mosul/Iraq in the Winter of 2014 where the electricity supply to the city by the National Electricity Authority NEA does not exceed 2 h for every 72 h and the temperature of the atmosphere varies between -3 and 14°C and semi-disappearance of other sources of energy such as oil, cooking gas and gasoline as well as the interruption of water supply by the government water purification plant as a result of the electrical power cuts. The best solution was to take advantage of solar water heating and private generators (the Zone Generators, ZG) in the area which supply a number of houses (3 h ON/3 h OFF) throughout the day. The LOGO!® V7.0 programmable logic controller from SIEMENS of Germany was used to control this system which consists of 1-the main electric water heater (Capacity 220 Ls). The auxiliary electric water heater (Capacity 30 L) for emergency cases. The solar heater which consists of two flat bed panels to collect solar radiation with a heat exchange tank (Capacity 180 L). The electrical control valves (Coil voltage 12 VDC). The main water storage tank at the top of the house (Capacity 1100 L) that is equipped with water either by the government water purification plant or by the water of the well in the case of the interruption of the first source using a water pump that will supply the main tank with water when needed. The solar electric cell that charges-in emergency cases-the battery which supplies the controller, sensors and actuators to ensure the sustainability of the operation of the control system, even in the complete absence of electricity. The test period of this system was from 1/10/2014 until 1/6/2015. The results of the test were good, especially, during the cold season during the month of January, 2014.
Enaam Albanna, Hassaan Th. H. Thabet and Zozan Saadallah Hussain, 2020. Design and Implementation of an Automated Residential Water Heating System using Sustainable Energy and PLC Techniques. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 15: 1244-1250.