Abstract: >Local villagers in Southern Thailand refer to them as Ngoh or Chao Pah. Southern provinces of Yala, Pattanee and Narathiwat refer to them as Sakae. Malaysians refer them as the Sakai, Semang or Orang Asli. The ethnic people themselves prefer to be called Manni. Latest estimates that there are currently only 300 Manni Sakai living in Southern Thailand and they believe in the spirits of their ancestors, believe in deities residing in large trees, forest spirits, water spirits, earth spirits and mountain spirits. They are a nomadic tribe that has a unique cultural heritage that conserves and protects the environment. They do not build permanent structures and are experts at indigenous knowledge in herbal medicine. Currently, Thailands government and local administrations have ignored the Manni Sakai and have done very little for them. The central government must exercise its authority and put forth measures and activities to create equality and unity among minority and majority groups. The successful conservation and revival of the social and cultural identities of the Manni Sakai depends on defining, which government branch and agency are responsible for the development. To accomplish this, a center for the Manni Sakai needs to be created by following 5 strategies that are strategy to create security, strategy to recognize and acknowledge the Manni Sakai, strategy to promote good health care, strategy to promote education and strategy to promote the conservation and revitalization of social and cultural identities of the Manni Sakai.
Anong Chaowanakit and Songkoon Chanthachon, 2009. The Ethnic Manni Sakai: Guidelines for Social and Cultural Revival for Living Together in Southern Thailand. The Social Sciences, 4: 478-482.