The Social Sciences

Year: 2013
Volume: 8
Issue: 6
Page No. 500 - 504

X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of (9th-10th Century AD) Ancient Bricks of Pengkalan Bujang Temple (Site 21/22) Bujang Valley, Kedah

Authors : Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman and Muhammad Rizal Razman

Abstract: Candi Pengkalan Bujang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha element that used bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-10th century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 10th century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its main purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mullite and kaolinite. Kaolinite mineral content in the PB21/22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21/22 (iii, iv and viii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.

How to cite this article:

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman and Muhammad Rizal Razman, 2013. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of (9th-10th Century AD) Ancient Bricks of Pengkalan Bujang Temple (Site 21/22) Bujang Valley, Kedah. The Social Sciences, 8: 500-504.

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