Abstract: Iranian society from the middle of the Naserian era had entered a new phase, created at its core several political-economic and mysterious societies. These societies had a role in the development of new thinking in Iran. Covert and overt activities of these societies such as the Union of humanity, secret society, National Association, the occult association of Tabriz, the social and Amyoon (people) are considered as the intellectual foundations of the constitutional revolution. The research question is that the constitutionalism process to what extent was effective in the emergence of political parties and liberal associations in the Qajar era? In response it should be said that mere constitutionalism has not been led to the emergence of political parties and liberal associations but it was a mutual relations meaning not only the idea of constitutionalism and ask for the law has been the cause of forming parties and associations and also Constitutional Movement indebted to the formation of overt and secret activities of these groups and associations.
Forouzan Adibfar, Mohammad Reza Hasheminia and Roohollah Shaverdi, 2016. The Effect of Constitutionalism on the Emergence of Political Parties and Liberal Associations in Qajar Persia (Iran in Qajar Era). The Social Sciences, 11: 6055-6060.