Abstract: Cold stress is generally considered to suppress the immune system and may lead to an increase in the occurrence of disease in the presence of a pathogen. The immune system is ordinarily brought back to a baseline response level after immune challenge through homeostatic processes in part regulated by the cytokines. Often, findings reported from various studies investigating the effects of stress on the cytokines are conflicting. This is due to some conditions has limited the accumulation of information on effects of cold stress on cytokine profile. The present study investigated the effects of multiple cytokines in response to a given stressor to understand the role of cytokines in the immunological responses to different duration of cold stress exposure in rats. Thus, researchers simulated animals hypothermia life environment, using Luminex xMAP and evaluated the effect of cold stress for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) type of cytokine in serum of SPF Wistar rats. Irrespective of the duration, cold stress enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Acute cold stress up-regulated TNF-α, IP-10, IL-2 and IL-4 levels. TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-4 levels showed down-regulate trends compared with the acute cold stress treatment groups in the duration of chronic cold stress. Both IFN-γ and IP-10 levels increased significantly in cold stress 9 and 12 days. These data demonstrate that cold stress enhances pro-inflammatory cytokines profile and alterations of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines secretion in serum of rats. With the extension of the cold stress time, the cellular adaptive immune response and to some extent, the nonspecific humoral immune response was also affected.
Jing Ru Guo, Shi Ze Li, Hong Gang Fang, Xu Zhang, Jian Fa Wang, Shuang Guo, Hong JI, Lin Zang, Li Guo, Li Zhen and Huan Min Yang, 2012. Different Duration of Cold Stress Enhances Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Profile and Alterations of Th1 and Th2 Type Cytokines Secretion in Serum of Wistar Rats. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11: 1538-1545.