Abstract: This study aimed to investigate husbandry models, trade developments and market structures of trade of cattle in the northeastern part of Thailand by using the qualitative research method. The study results revealed the following information: Husbandry of cattle in the past began from keeping and letting cattle stray by allowing domestic animals to graze natural grass in rice fields, upland crop fields, groves and public land areas around the communities. It was husbandry of cattle with relationships with farmers` living-making. The major purposes of cattle husbandry were to use labor and manure for cultivation and to be savings sources. Therefore, cattle then were regarded as valuable animals for the society. When economic and social structures changed from sustainable husbandry to commercial husbandry and marketing systems, the method of cattle husbandry gradually changed from allowing animals to stray to husbandry by tying them in the personal land areas because of land limitation. At present, cattle husbandry is a type of keeping animals in the cattle pens. Also, grass is grown in the space areas on the living place compounds or in the upland – crop and garden areas for their animals to eat. Due to having quite limited time husbandry of cattle for sale, the relationship is only being a kind of domestic animals which can make incomes for the owners. For trade of cattle in the northeastern part of Thailand, the trade began in Thailand by Bowring Treaty in 1855. This increased the needs for cattle to be labor. It caused local cattle merchants (nai hoi in lsan dialect) to lead cattle to sell in the central part of the country. In the first period, the merchants drove cattle in herds by walking. Nai hoi led the cattle by themselves. Later, they changed to travel by train. The second period began approximately in 1968. It was an era of transportation of cattle by truck along the highway to the markets in the central part of the country. Mostly these cattle were taken to slaughter - houses rather than to use labor. And the third period is the present period of time, called an era of cattle fair. It has begun from about the year 1982. They use local places as sources of appointments for buying, selling and bartering cattle between nai hoi and farmers. The model of cattle trade in the northeastern part of Thailand in general has characteristics of open-free markets. The cattle market structure consists of market owner(s), farmers, merchants of cattle (nai hoi), management system, networks, state officials, politicians and village or community.
Terdchai Panthachai , Songkoon Chantachon and Worapol Aengwanich , 2008. Husbandry and Trade of Cattle in the Northeastern Part of Thailand. The Social Sciences, 3: 157-163.